Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF15), also known as Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1), is a protein belonging to the TGF-beta superfamily. Like other proteins in the superfamily, it is expressed as a large precursor protein and cleaved at an (RxxR) furin-like cleavage site to release the mature protein. GDF15 is highly expressed in mammalian tissue with higher levels in the placenta and brain and lower levels in the kidney, prostate, colon. Its expression is tightly regulated and often induced in response to cellular stress. Additionally, GDF15 has been shown to have various functions, including inhibition of Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages and the induction of cartilage formation. Some studies have also implicated GDF15 serum levels to have a strong association with many diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity, and could potentially serve as a reliable biomarker for disease progression.
Proteins and peptides
Growth Differentiation Factor 15, MIC-1, Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine 1, NSAID-activated gene 1 protein, NAG-1, NSAID-regulated gene 1 protein, NRG-1, Placental TGF-beta, Placental bone morphogenetic protein, Prostate differentiation factor