Spartalizumab is a humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody developed by Novartis for the treatment of solid tumors as well as lymphomas. They act as negative immune regulators of programmed death-1 (PD-1), a transmembrane protein belonging to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. When administered, Spartalizumab binds to T-cells expressing PD-1 and thereby blocks the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands, programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) and ligand 2 (PD-L2). Blocking the interaction disrupts PD-1 mediated signaling and results in activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and T cell mediated immune responses and thus inhibits the growth and size of the tumors. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating the efficacy of this antibody for the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer and melanoma.
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