Oxidative Protein Damage
Proteins within cells undergo oxidative stress in the presence of various reactive oxygen species (ROS). The resulting damage to the protein may take the form of nitration or oxidation of various residues, depending on the the ROS present. ROS can also cause the formation of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) or advanced glycation end products (AGE), both of which are stable markers of oxidative stress. Damage to proteins may result in reduced cell-specific functional ability and may then allow other mutations to produce signalling components which will then go unchecked aiding tumourigenesis.
Many studies use oxidative protein damagae markers for staging cancer patients’ disease progression. Cambridge Bioscience offers protein carbonyl assays, protein nitration assays, AGE (Advanced Glycation End Product) and AOPP (Advanced Oxidation Protein Products) that provide a quick, sensitive method for detection of carbonyl residues and 3-nitrotyrosine residues, respectively.